Essay | 功能句整理

Intro: 开头段功能句

用于看到题目里面有“people say that…”

(第一句)

It is said that 某种现象/趋势

  • 完整句子 (countries are becoming similar to each other)
  • because of 什么东西-n. (the global spread of the some products),
  • which 怎么样- 完整句子(are now available for purchase almost anywhere). 

(第二句)

  • 表达个人观点- I (strongly) believe that
  • 和前一句有关的这个现象/ 趋势- n. (this modern development)
  • 怎么样- 完整句子 (is largely detrimental to culture and traditions worldwide).

(这是我觉得很常用的一个,基本很多题的开头段都可以套用考官的这个套路,特别是陈述一种事物的时候)

现在流行的趋势,比如gap year,网上购物,坐飞机满世界浪….

(第一句)

  • It is quite common these days for 主体
  • 谁(young people)
  • 在哪里 (in many countries)
  • 干什么-动词结构 (to have a break from studying after graduating from high school).

(第二句)

The trend 怎么样-完整句子

 (is not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become economically independent for a period of time).

这个开头比较适合与科技/ 现代发展有关的题型,因为包含什么被什么驱动这层含义

(第一句)

  • Over the last half century (也可以用别的时间长度)+
  • 什么事物-n. (the pace of change in the life of human beings) + has(注意时态)+
  • 怎么样-动词结构 (increased beyond our wildest expectations).

(第二句)

  • This has been driven by
  • 什么东西-n. (technological and scientific breakthroughs) that +
  • 怎么样- 完整句子 (are changing the whole way we view the world on an almost daily basis).

(第三句)

  • 这意味着什么 This means that +
  • 完整句子(change is not always a personal option, but an inescapable fact of life),
  • 我们应该怎么做- 完整句子(and we need to constantly to keep pace with it).

开门见山地论述现代社会存在什么问题,同时给出其中一种解决方法 (例子原文是用于D/G类的题目)

(第一句)

A problem of modern societies is 什么问题-n. (the declining level of health in the general population), with conflicting views on how to tackle this worrying trend(如果题目里面包含解决这个问题的两种方案的争论,就可以照搬(一定要用自己的话说出来)这句话).

(第二句)

One possible solution is to 干什么-动词结构 (provide more sports facilities to encourage a more active lifestyle).

依照传统某件事是应该怎样的,但这件事有了新的做法,并且还被什么人或机构采纳了,出现的结果有好有坏。(剑桥原文里面是用的advantage/ disadvantage类的题)

(第一句)Traditionally,

  • 谁-n. (children) have(注意时态)+
  • 干什么-动词结构 (begun studying foreign language at secondary school), but
  • 现在情况不同了- 包含ing的完整句子(introducing them earlier is recommended by some educationalists).

(第二句)

  • This 东西-n. (policy) has been
  • 怎么样-动词 (adopted by) +
  • 谁-n.(some educational authorities or individual schools),
  • 结果有好有坏- with both positive and negative outcomes.

题目里面包含A和B两种事物哪个更重要的争论,比如天赋与后天培养 (剑桥原文里面是用于D/G类的)

  • The relative importance of
  • 事物1-n.(natural talent) and 事物2-n. (training)
  • is a frequent topic of discussion when people try to explain 什么话题- n. (different levels of ability in, for example, sport, art or music).

(请注意考官的用词哦,“frequent”,是一个表示频率的词,并且用“when”引导了场景,绝对不像国内写作书上写的那些语气特别强的词,好像缺了某个事物大家都不能正常生活了一样~ 还有the relative importance用得极好,寥寥几个字就把人们的争论写得明明白白~ 腻害腻害~)

题目里面包含“only”这类词,或者只给出了一种解决方案,而你觉得这种方案不够,还需要别的方案的时候

(第一句)

什么东西-n. (A child’s education) has never been about 事物1-n. (learning information) and 事物2-n. (basic skills) only.

(第二句)

It has always included +

事物3-n./动名词你自己的观点补充的东西(teaching the next generation how to be good members of society).

(第三句)

Therefore, this cannot be

与事物1.2有关的事物4-n.(the responsibility of the parents) alone.

body段里面的功能句

用于论述两全的问题~ 应该算是一个中立逻辑链吧,一般可以用于D/G的body3表达你自己的观点,你觉得A和B事物是缺一不可并且相辅相成的

(第一句)

I personally think that

你的观点 – 完整句子 – 肯定事物A  

(some people do have talents that are probably inherited via their genes).

(第二句)

解释第一句话观点里面的事物A带来的好处 + 完整句子 (Such talents can give individuals a facility for certain skills that allow them to excel),

对比事物B的弱点-while + 完整句子 (more hard-working students never manage to reach a comparable level).

(第三句)

转折A与B并不是互相排斥的 But, as with all questions of A+B (nature versus nurture), they are not mutually exclusive(只要包含相辅相成的关系这句话都可以照搬).

(第四句)

同时兼容A和B的人/会得到哪些好处 (Good musicians or artists and exceptional sports stars), have probably succeeded because of both A+B (good training and natural talent).

(第五句) Without A (the natural talent), B (continuous training) +会怎么样-完整句子 would be (neither attractive nor productive), and without B (the training), 受体-n. (the child) + 会受到哪些负面影响- 完整句子 (would not learn how to exploit and develop their talent).

用于“which is the major influence”这类比较特殊的提醒,一般这个功能句用在body3表达你自己的观点。可以是A,B两种事物,也可以是A,B,C三种或者以上事物,表达他们是互相影响的作用于某一事物

(第一句)

My own view is that there is no one major influence in 在哪方面-n.(a person’s life).

(第二句)

Instead, 事物A (the traits we inherited from our parents) and 事物B

(the situations and experiences that we encounter in life) + 是相互影响的 are constantly interacting.

(第三句)

It is the interaction of the two (也可以用three/ these factors等等等,有几个你填几个~)that + 怎么影响受体的-动词结构 (shapes a person’s personality and dictates how that personality develops).

(第四句) 虚拟语气,如果这都不算爱/ 如果这不是真的… If this were not true, 那么怎么样- 完整句子 (we would be able to predict the behaviour and character of a person from the moment they were born).

(shape, dictate都是极好的动词哦~ 又生动又地道,还有最后一句虚拟语气~ 非常强大了)

说明题目中提到的某物的发展是受制于客观环境或客观事物的。而这个客观环境或客观事物才是回应题目的最重要因素

(第一句)

But whether 题目中提到的因素-n. (these characteristics)

+ are able to develop(develop这个动词可以替换)

+ 在哪方面-n. (within the personality of an individual)

+ 取决于surely depends on whether

+ 客观条件/ 客观事物-n. (the circumstances) allows such a development.

(第二句)

It seems that

+ 客观环境/ 客观事物(the experiences we have in life)

+ 难以预料 are so unpredictable and so powerful, 完整句子(注意那个that) they can boost or over-ride other influences, and there seems to be plenty of research findings to confirm this (这句话几乎是可以照抄的,只要你想表达“…是什么的最重要因素”).

用于body2,前文你已经说了某个观点,然后这个body2就是啪啪啪打脸的过程,引出另一个观点

(第一句)

However, reaching the conclusion that

+ 上文观点- 完整句子 (change is inevitable) is not the same as assuming that

+ 某个错误观点- 完整句子 (“change is always for the better” ).

(第二句)

Unfortunately, it is not always the case that

+ 反驳上文观点的论点-完整句子 (new things are promoted because they have good impacts for the major of the people).

(第三句)

解释上一句- 完整句子,这句话可有可无,不想解释就不写了 (A lot of innovations are made with the aim of making money for a few).

(第四句)

用一个强调句解释第二句话,This is because it is (the rich and powerful people in our society who are able to impose changes such as in working conditions or property developments that are in their own interests) .

有的题目里面包含“only”,“best”这个意思,比如什么是什么最好方法啊,什么是什么的唯一解决方式啊,等等,都可以用这个功能句来回答:还有更好的方法

(第一句)

However, there may be better ways of tackling this problem (抄原句).

(第二句)

原方法包含的措施-n. (Interest in sport) is not universal (不是普遍的/通用的),and 原方法-n. (additional facilities) + 有什么局限 might simply (attract the already fit, not those who most need them).

(第三句)

其他方法-n. (Physical activity) could be encouraged (relatively cheaply),

举例-for example by (installing exercise equipment in parks), as my local councils has done (如果你们社区也这么干了就勇敢地加上这一句吧~).

(第四句)

带来的好处 this has the added benefits that +好处-完整句子 (parents and children often use them together just for fun), which 产生了什么好的影响-完整句子 (develops a positive attitude to exercise at an early age).

这个功能句是紧接着功能句5的,用于拓展前面没有说完的措施,如果功能句5作为body1的话,功能句6就是body2

(第一句)As well as 上文的方法1-n. (physical activity),

  • 新方法2-n. (high tax penalties) could be
  • 怎么样-被动动词结构 (imposed on high-fat food products, tobacco and alcohol ),
  • 解释原因- 完整句子 as (excessive consumption of any of these contributes to poor health).

(第二句)

  • 让步 – 即使什么不起眼的方法都可以帮上忙 Even + 方法3-n. (improving public transport) would help
  • (解释-完整句子) it takes longer to walk to the bus station than to the car.

结尾段里面的功能句

这个可以作为主体段功能句2的结尾,说明A和B都不是对于某个受体的主要影响。

(第一句)

In conclusion, I do not think that either A-n.(nature) or B-n.(nurture) is the major influence on

受体-n. (a person), but that both have powerful effects.

(第二句)

A和B怎么互相影响的还不清楚 How these factors interact is still unknown today and they remain largely unpredictable in 哪方面-n. (a person’s life).

这个可以作为主体段功能句4的结尾,用when后接限制条件,说明某个东西并不一定有用或者有好的结果。

  • In conclusion, I would say that
  • 某物-n. (change) +
  • 可以达到某种好的结果- 动名词结构 (be stimulating and energizing for individuals) + when +
  • 某个限制条件-完整句子 (they pursue it themselves),
  • but that 反驳-完整句子 (all change, including that which is imposed on people),
  • 并不一定有好的结果- does not necessarily have good outcomes.

这个可以用于主体段功能句5和6的结尾,也就是说可以用于best/ only way这类的结尾。

(第一句)

In my opinion, focusing on

题目里面提到的best /only way-n./

动名词 (sports facilities) is too narrow an approach and would not have the desired results.

(第二句)

总结一下你提出的新方法1.2 People should be encouraged not only to

方法1- (be more physically active) but also to

方法2-(adopt a healthier lifestyle in general).

如果题目里给出了某个观点,而你反对这个观点,那么你的结尾可以用这个。

  • Some may argue that + 题目中观点-完整句子 (all people are entitled to have access to the same products), but I say that
  • 你的观点-完整句子 (local objects suit local conditions best), and
  • 解释你的观点-完整句子 (that faceless uniformity worldwide is an unwelcome and dreary prospect).

Cause+solution类题的整篇逻辑链

开头

某种负面现象-n. (poor student behaviour) seems to be an increasingly widespread problem and I think that +

罪魁祸首-n. (modern lifestyles) are probably responsible for this.

Cause

(第一句)

(In many countries), 罪魁祸首-n.(the birthrate) 怎么样- 动词结构(is decreasing) so that + 结果-完整句子 (families are familiar with fewer children).

(第二句)

具体解释一下。

(第三句)

This means that … 后接完整句子用where/ what等展开。

Solutions (重点)

Solution 1:

(第一句)

哪些受体苦不堪言- (teachers) constantly complain about this problem and measures should be taken to combat this situation.

(第二句)

But I think the solution to the problem lies with 某人/某物-n. (the families), who need to 干什么-动词结构 (be more aware of the future consequences of spoiling their children).

(第三句)如果某人某物能够行动或某物被采用,什么会受益。If they would

干嘛-完整句子(raise them to be considerate of others and to be social, responsible individuals),

受益体-n.(the whole community) would benefit.

Solution 2:

(第一句)

Perhaps 解决问题法宝1-n. (parenting classes) are needed to help them to do this, and

解决法宝2-n. (high quality nursery schools) could be established that would +

怎样帮助解决问题-动词结构 (support families more in terms of raising the nest generation).

(第二句)

谁-可以提供那两个解决问题法宝的人-n. (The government) should

干什么-动词结构 (fund this kind of parental support)

, 因为什么原因-完整句子(because this is no longer a problem for individual families, but for the society as a whole).

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